Rhel 8

We will show you how to install either Python 2. In other words, how to upgrade from RHEL (or CentOS) 5 to 6 to 7 to 8. An anonymous reader writes: Serving as a consistent foundation for hybrid cloud environments, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. CentOS Atomic Host is a lean operating system designed to run Docker containers, built from standard CentOS 7 RPMs, and tracking the component versions included in Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server editions for x86, x86_64, Itanium, PowerPC and IBM System z architectures, and desktop editions for x86 and x86_64 processors. 0-openjdk package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. Most of us don’t have an active subscription to download Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 from the Red Hat Customer Portal. My environment: CentOS 6. The first beta was announced on November 14, 2018. RHEL 8 released on May 7th, 2019 and is now available for the public to download and use. Download CentOS 6 - vmware image for free. As of CentOS 6. Installing gcc 4. Red Hat is the world's leading provider of enterprise open source solutions, including high-performing Linux, cloud, container, and Kubernetes technologies. 05/17/2019; 26 minutes to read +5; In this article. Q: What is Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) on Amazon EC2? Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a scalable, high-performance, enterprise operating system for secure computing. service systemctl start postgresql. This is the recommended approach because installation and upgrades are managed with YUM. CentOS is actually sponsored by Red Hat since a couple of years ago. For users, we offer a consistent manageable platform that suits a wide variety of deployments. Since the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (on 07-May) we've been looking into the tools that we use to build CentOS Linux. The next major RHEL update is on its way with more container friendliness than ever. Download Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. These instructions are for installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 (RHEL6) on an IA-32 system (i. Control Group V2 is supported that manages and distributes system resources in a better way compared to the previous version. Kabir] on Amazon. 0 module is now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Operating on your choice of hardware—in your data center or in the cloud—Oracle Linux provides the reliability. In this documentation we will refer to all 3 using the term RHEL. But Python 2 remains available in RHEL 8. Most Linux distributions and BSD variants have NGINX in the usual package repositories and they can be installed via whatever method is normally used to install software (apt-get on Debian, emerge on Gentoo, ports on FreeBSD, etc). 2 can upgrade their system to the most recent. 5M : 389-ds-base-devel-1. creates installation folder and extracts all required files there; can create shortcut in Programs menu, as well as Desktop and Quick Launch bar shortcuts. RHEL 8 Beta - The podman cometh; Recent Comments. x, HIPAA, FBI CJIS, and Controlled Unclassified Information (NIST 800-171) and DISA Operating System Security Requirements Guide (DISA OS SRG). On Tuesday Red Hat announced the general availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 7. 1 and JavaServer Pages 2. Drupal's code is written in PHP and comes under GNU GPL (General Public License ). Since the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (on 07-May) we've been looking into the tools that we use to build CentOS Linux. Apache Tomcat 8 Installation on Linux (RHEL and clones) Apache Tomcat 8 is not available from the standard RHEL distributions, so this article provides information about the manual installation and basic configuration of Apache Tomcat 8 on RHEL and its clones from tarballs. for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Debian provides more than a pure OS: it comes with over 59000 packages, precompiled software bundled up in a nice format for easy installation on your machine. 28 as the default desktop environment and runs on Wayland. Red Hat Linux is, from what I have observed, the more popular of the Linux distributions. We will show you how to install either Python 2. The tables below list the major and minor Red Hat Enterprise Linux updates, their release dates, and the kernel versions that shipped with them. /> * Reviews setting up Bind, Apache. PostgreSQL RPM Building Project - Yum Repository. After that you will install the necessary dependencies to create PHP apps with SQL Server. CentOS is RHEL without the Red Hat branding. Fedora, Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, etc. This is an opportunity to look at PHP installation and how modules work. For Red Hat, verify that your Subscription Manager for RHEL is up-to-date. The process of installing GNOME on any version of CentOS is almost the same. Lambda Expressions, a new language feature; Default methods enable new functionality to be added to the interfaces of libraries and ensure binary compatibility with code written for older versions of those interfaces. Also great to see xfs gain COW support in RHEL, they are working to make up (in features) for dropping btrfs with xfs. 8', "CentOS Linux 6. As everybody is probably aware now, RHEL 8. CentOS is actually sponsored by Red Hat since a couple of years ago. Note: To ensure optimal performance of SQL Server, your machine should have at least 4 GB of memory. 1 Beta: Two months after the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. With new developer-centric features like container tools, advanced language support, and application streams, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (RHEL) is the most developer friendly Linux ever. * Covers new Linux 2. Desktop settings are simple to adjust and customize. Steps to Install JAVA 8 on CentOS/RHEL and Fedora. I still run CentOS 4 on it. Red Hat Linux 8 Server [Mohammed J. No one is going to be able to give you solid information on release dates so far out in the future. Our partnership with Red Hat has enabled us to bring clients flexible, cost-effective and open source cloud-based infrastructure solutions, backed with security, reliability and support. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 was released on 2019-05-07, and everyone is waiting for CentOS 8 release. A few weeks ago Red Hat release the Red Hat JBoss EAP 6. On the command line, type: $ su -c "yum install java-1. Some software such as cPanel® requires a valid fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the hostname to be used during their licensing verification system. The Modules and Application Stream features allow you to make. On Tuesday Red Hat announced the general availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is released in server editions for x86, x86_64, Itanium, PowerPC and IBM System z architectures, and desktop editions for x86 and x86_64 processors. Zimbra has an easy to use Web GUI that will allow you to manage your email efficiently. What is Tomcat? Apache Tomcat (before known as Jakarta Tomcat) is an application server developed by the Apache Software Foundation that executes Java servlets and renders Web pages that include Java Server Page coding. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 is in development as you can see over here: GitHub - rhinstaller/anaconda at rhel8-alpha-branch As we all know: CentOS 8 is been rebranded from Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. 28, systemd 239, and GNOME 3. In this documentation we will refer to all 3 using the term RHEL. In this article, you will learn how to prepare a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) virtual machine for use in Azure. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. CentOS Official and Third-Party Repositories. RHEL 8 (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8) was released in Beta on November 14, 2018, with new features and improvements as compared to the antecedent – RHEL 7. 0-openjdk" The java-1. This is an opportunity to look at PHP installation and how modules work. Pricing and Availability Red Hat Linux 8. Hi, I could log in RHEL 6. The major releases of RHEL appear further and further apart in time, meaning that the changes are more and more complicated. Upgrade RHEL/CentOS to 7. This howto explains howto install Google Chrome Web browser on Fedora 15, Fedora 14, Fedora 13, Fedora 12, CentOS 6 and Red Hat 6 (RHEL 6). (thread safety) Contained in the php56w package, this SAPI integrates into Apache Httpd (2. This tutorial helps you to install Java 8 or update Java on your system (centos 7). It is widely deployed and powers various mission-critical web applications around the world. Try before you buy: get started with Red Hat Linux on Azure with a free trial and a $200 credit to explore any Azure service for 30 days. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform. If you do not already have a copy of JBoss Developer Studio, click here to download it free. For this reason, the CentOS binaries are not the same as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux binaries. 5 customized for our use and install We have our own kickstart which uses list-harddrives and parted to check on the Disks and partition accordingly. This article describes how to configure a CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to use the Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository. CentOS is one of the most tested and stable GNU/Linux distributions, and that is why it is also one of the most used ones. RHEL-8 Beta is announced and is available for download for whom want to try it. Red Hat Product Security has rated this update as having a security impact of Important. As everybody is probably aware now, RHEL 8. Newly introduced cool features of RHEL 8 Improved System Performance. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (Ootpa) is based on Fedora 28, upstream Linux kernel 4. , a 32-bit Intel- or AMD-based system) and Opteron 64-bit systems (x86_64). Recently, the latest version of CentOS 7. Debian is a free operating system (OS) for your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 adds multiple new features including a. The tables below list the major and minor Red Hat Enterprise Linux updates, their release dates, and the kernel versions that shipped with them. According to Red Hat, RHEL Linux 8 is redesigned for the hybrid cloud era and built to support the workloads and operations that vary from enterprise datacenters to multiple public clouds. Before you can manage Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Beta nodes with Ansible 2. Pricing and Availability Red Hat Linux 8. Install Oracle Java 7u79/80 on Fedora 23/22, CentOS/RHEL 7. This project is not sponsored or endorsed by either Red Hat® or the Fedora™ Project. This release came after IBM acquired Red Hat for $34 billion on October 28, 2018. The tables below list the major and minor Red Hat Enterprise Linux updates, their release dates, and the kernel versions that shipped with them. For VSEL 2. Follow @AzureMktPlace. We've chosen to use the Koji buildsystem for RPMs, paired with the Module Build Service for modules, delivered through a distribution called Mbox. OpenSuse vs. Register the Microsoft Linux. Perl is an interpreted language that is very popular in the Unix community because it has a rich and powerful feature set, but is still easy to use. 8 you will need to uninstall the LIS download and rely only on the built-in support until a new release of LIS with RHEL 6. This page lists all the available downloads for Vagrant. Hostname and IP. "Anaconda interacts with Yum, of course, so I learned about the general issues with packaging then. In the previous post, we looked at the history of Red Hat Enterprise Linux from pre-RHEL days through the rise of virtualization. If you want to upgrade gcc on CentOS, you can install devtools, which is a CentOS version of Red Hat Developer Toolset. How To Configure Static IP On CentOS 6. If something works Red Hat X. Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) is a groupware product created by Zimbra, Inc. The new beta offers improvements to firewall configuration, new SELinux profiles, and more options for Image Builder. This tutorial shows the installation of ISPConfig 3. You can subscribe to the list, or change your existing subscription, in the sections below. service Direct RPM download. Official Zabbix packages are available for RHEL 7, CentOS 7 and Oracle Linux 7. How to Install RHEL 8?, or How can I install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8?. You'll need this package in order to compile C code. Hi, I could log in RHEL 6. rpm: 2018-11-12 14:21 : 271K. By default, RHEL 8/CentOS 8 forbids public access to port 80. Installed with : 8 GB of RAM, 2vcpu and 130 GB disks. CentOS (/ ˈ s ɛ n t ɒ s /, from Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution that provides a free, enterprise-class, community-supported computing platform functionally compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). Install CentOS 64 bit minimal install. Apache Tomcat is an open-source web server that is designed to serve Java web pages. Installed with : 8 GB of RAM, 2vcpu and 130 GB disks. If you do not already have a copy of JBoss Developer Studio, click here to download it free. In this documentation we will refer to all 3 using the term RHEL. Red Hat has announced the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the leading Linux distribution that is used in data centers around the world to run a wide scope of application workloads. Start free. Windows Installer (win32/pe): QtWeb-setup. 04 or Solaris as at the moment those are the only supported operating systems. Get free access to product downloads for development use through the Red Hat Developer Program. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 (RHEL 8) has been released on May 7th, 2019. Please see this for more info concerning Atomic on CentOS. Q: What is Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) on Amazon EC2? Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a scalable, high-performance, enterprise operating system for secure computing. 1 x86_64 (64-bit) machine. 28 as the default desktop environment and runs on Wayland. 5, the default version of gcc installed is 4. RHEL 8, the last to be developed prior to IBM's acquisition of Red Hat, is based on Fedora. Documentation. You should consider one of the following options:. By default, no version of Python installed on RHEL 8. Drupal’s code is written in PHP and comes under GNU GPL (General Public License ). 1 Library for. CentOS is RHEL without the Red Hat branding. 2 on CentOS 6. 1 or localhost in the browser address bar. Although, the steps should work on other RPM based distributions such as RHEL 7, 6. rpm: 21-Apr-2011 16:27 : 2. The Rpmfind tool allows automate the search of packages from the RPM Database or maintain your system up-to-date in a more automated way. We've chosen to use the Koji buildsystem for RPMs, paired with the Module Build Service for modules, delivered through a distribution called Mbox. 5 kernel features, including Tux Web server. Control Group V2 is supported that manages and distributes system resources in a better way compared to the previous version. Changelog * Sat Aug 10 2019 Fabian Arrotin 8-0. It's supposed to be thread-safe, but can't guarantee to be, and certainly not under additional PHP extensions. Documentation. 2, debian 8. At the Red Hat Summit, 2019 the company announced the availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. This project intends to promote the use of KDE and KDE-based applications on/for Fedora™ and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® through the creation and distribution of unofficial core and 3rd-party KDE RPM packages. This article describes how to configure a CentOS or Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to use the Fedora Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository. 1 x86_64 (64-bit) machine. KDE Packaging Project. Apache Tomcat 8 Installation on Linux (RHEL and clones) Apache Tomcat 8 is not available from the standard RHEL distributions, so this article provides information about the manual installation and basic configuration of Apache Tomcat 8 on RHEL and its clones from tarballs. Eventbrite - Moser Consulting presents Red Hat RHEL 8 Release Party with Red Hat & Moser at Orioles Game - Wednesday, September 18, 2019 at Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Baltimore, MD. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux application certification is the model for setting, measuring, and enforcing standards of best practices in modern software applications resulting in the technical assurances today's enterprise. 0 in VMWare. "I had my first serious open source inside exposure in 2009 when I started to work on Anaconda, the Fedora system installer," he says. Red Hat Developer members have full access to RHEL 8 software, documentation, and how-tos. Today at the Red Hat Summit in Boston, Red Hat launched Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8. You can read the full announcement on the Red Hat Developer Blog. Note: To ensure optimal performance of SQL Server, your machine should have at least 4 GB of memory. However, I cannot start GUI. By default, your server is started with the server’s given name as the hostname. Also, enlist steps to download RHEL 8 BETA ISO from Red Hat developer portal. 28 as the default desktop environment and runs on Wayland. Official Zabbix packages are available for RHEL 7, CentOS 7 and Oracle Linux 7. I think Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 is the most developer-friendly Red Hat Enterprise Linux that we've delivered, and I hope you agree. We've chosen to use the Koji buildsystem for RPMs, paired with the Module Build Service for modules, delivered through a distribution called Mbox. Documentation. Red Hat Linux 8. Download CentOS. Language support for Java ™ for Visual Studio Code. 06 screen shots. 1 Install SQL Server. FirewallD is the default daemon responsible for firewall security feature onRHEL 8 / CentOS 8 Server. When it comes to popular Linux server distributions, CentOS tries to match Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and is a web hosting heavyweight distribution. Most of us don’t have an active subscription to download Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 from the Red Hat Customer Portal. Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform. It looks like RHEL 8 is still in initial development, and there's no published alpha version just yet. 0, Ubuntu 8. This article describes how to change a server hostname in CentOS®. Apache Tomcat 8 Installation on Linux (RHEL and clones) Apache Tomcat 8 is not available from the standard RHEL distributions, so this article provides information about the manual installation and basic configuration of Apache Tomcat 8 on RHEL and its clones from tarballs. In our previous article we discussed Java 8 installation with Ansible. 0 was released earlier this week. Network scripts are deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 and they are no longer provided by default. JDK 7 Debian, Ubuntu, etc. If you intend to run CentOS-6/x86_64 images, this one is recommended. * * This exploit makes use of the SELinux and the mmap_min_addr problem to * exploit this vulnerability on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. If you intend to run CentOS-6/x86_64 images, this one is recommended. rpm: 2018-11-12 14:21 : 1. But it does go ahead and remove Btrfs support, which we've been expecting. This is an opportunity to look at PHP installation and how modules work. 0" patchset and some other patches must be applied. 8 arrives today with major changes, among which we can. Marketplace forum (MSDN). Thank you for your patience and stay tuned for the new improved forums. Hostname and IP. If you are installing LEMP on your local RHEL 8/CentOS 8 computer, then type 127. RHEL 8 has now been released. By default, RHEL 8/CentOS 8 forbids public access to port 80. 28, systemd 239, and GNOME 3. 0, a brand-new release which ships with GNOME 3. 480 (released 08/02/2018-21/05/2018) – [New Feature] Main left menu search option – [New Feature] Manage User crons from the admin panel – [New Feature] New Notifications handler with email alerts – [New Feature] New Ulimits Module -Show all user processes and limits (good for debugging). Red Hat's container application platform automates the provisioning, management and scaling of applications so that you can focus on writing the code for your business, startup, or next big idea. The tables below list the major and minor Red Hat Enterprise Linux updates, their release dates, and the kernel versions that shipped with them. 04 or Solaris as at the moment those are the only supported operating systems. x, the kernel version must be 2. This guide is the gorge for the missing piece. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is integral to the worldwide economy. As you download and use CentOS Linux, the CentOS Project invites you to be a part of the community as a contributor. org The following mirrors in your region should have the ISO images available:. NVIDIA cuDNN is a GPU-accelerated library of primitives for deep neural networks. 0-openjdk package contains just the Java Runtime Environment. RHEL 8 install Python 3 or Python 2 using yum. PostgreSQL RPM Building Project - Yum Repository. In addition to the management capabilities of Red Hat Satellite and automation via Ansible Tower, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. 3) on Fedora 27/26/25, CentOS 7. Red Hat Linux 8 Server [Mohammed J. for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. * on RHEL/CentOS 7). Please see this for more info concerning Atomic on CentOS. In this documentation we will refer to all 3 using the term RHEL. The leading provider of enterprise open source solutions, using a community-powered approach to deliver Linux, cloud, container, and Kubernetes technologies. In case of Fedora 28 and later, it will be supported (Samba 4. Parent Directory - 389-ds-base-1. Note: Your browser does not support JavaScript or it is turned off. 1 or localhost in the browser address bar. The hostname or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file. 5 customized for our use and install We have our own kickstart which uses list-harddrives and parted to check on the Disks and partition accordingly. 6 (64Bit) server. RPM Package Manager. For RHEL / CentOS / SL / OL 7, 8 or Fedora 29 and later derived distributions: postgresql-setup initdb systemctl enable postgresql. NFS stands for Network File System. The Fedora Project is maintained and driven by the community and sponsored by Red Hat. In the past, the only official method of upgrading major versions of CentOS was to wipe and reinstall everything. ) Johnny Hughes has announced the release of CentOS 6. This tutorial will be showing you how to download and install RHEL8 for free. On May 10, Red Hat announced general availability of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. The hostname or computer name is usually at system startup in /etc/hostname file. 1 and JavaServer Pages 2. By default, no version of Python installed on RHEL 8. At first we need to install X Windows components, to do that hit the following command in shell by root user credentials, [[email protected]`]# yum groupinstall -y ‘X Window. "Anaconda interacts with Yum, of course, so I learned about the general issues with packaging then. X it should work on CentOS X. /> * Reviews setting up Bind, Apache. 7 with openjdk 1. This is guide, howto install or upgrade MySQL Community Server latest version 5. Hopefully it will be released before the November 2020 EOL for updates to CentOS 6. Instead of publishing multiple blog posts here and then point to updated content,. Red Hat 2017 : June 15, 2017 by Threehosts. Provides Java ™ language support via Eclipse ™ JDT Language Server, which utilizes Eclipse ™ JDT, M2Eclipse and Buildship. It is widely deployed and powers various mission-critical web applications around the world. 8分享链接失效了 可以重新分享下吗. RHEL 8, the last to be developed prior to IBM's acquisition of Red Hat, is based on Fedora. 05/17/2019; 26 minutes to read +5; In this article. After testing out Mandrake, I decided to give Red Hat Linux 8. x (there are two separate RPM packages for each series) RedHat Enterprise Linux 7. 8 arrives today with major changes, among which we can. Java Programming Language. Kabir] on Amazon. and Cygnus Solutions. , a 32-bit Intel- or AMD-based system) and Opteron 64-bit systems (x86_64). The devtools, which is available for CentOS 5 and 6, contains a suite of development tools including gcc, gdb, binutils, elfutils, etc. 8 operating system, CentOS Linux 6. But it does go ahead and remove Btrfs support, which we've been expecting. By default, no version of Python installed on RHEL 8. Install a specific version by its fully qualified package name, which is the package name (docker-ce) plus the version string (2nd column) starting at the first colon (:), up to the first hyphen, separated by a hyphen (-). Install Java 8 on centos 7. Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8 was released on May 7, nearly five years after the release of RHEL 7. The list returned depends on which repositories are enabled, and is specific to your version of CentOS (indicated by the. 5M : 389-ds-base-devel-1. Drupal's code is written in PHP and comes under GNU GPL (General Public License ). - Fixed sources paths for BaseOS/AppStream * Sat Aug 10 2019 Brian Stinson 8-0. This is the recommended approach because installation and upgrades are managed with YUM. 7 (旧表記: Update 7) 2008年7月24日 RHEL 4. / - Directory: repodata/: 2019-Aug-16 14:23:48 - Directory: repoview/: 2019-Aug-16 14:23:50 - Directory: CGAL-4. Download Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. How To Configure Static IP On CentOS 6. The gcc package contains the GNU Compiler Collection version 4. The text is the site of that url. "I had my first serious open source inside exposure in 2009 when I started to work on Anaconda, the Fedora system installer," he says. How To Install Java 8 (JDK 8u201) On CentOS/RHEL 7/6 and Fedora 29-23. 8 is derived from source code released by Red Hat, Inc. How to Install RHEL 8?, or How can I install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8?. 0-openjdk" The java-1. 8 (旧表記: Update 8) 2009年5月18日 RHEL 4. You should consider one of the following options:. Rapid7 Insight is your home for SecOps, equipping you with the visibility, analytics, and automation you need to unite your teams and amplify efficiency. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is integral to the worldwide economy. Red Hat Linux 8. RHEL 8 Beta version got released recently (Nov 14, 2018) and its Beta version is available for developers!. With Red Hat’s contributions and investment, the CentOS Project will be better able to serve the needs of open source community members who require different or faster-moving components to be integrated with CentOS, expanding on existing efforts to collaborate with open source projects such as OpenStack, Gluster, OpenShift Origin, and oVirt. 5 kernel features, including Tux Web server. The basic installation provides a new version of the ifup and ifdown scripts which call the NetworkManager service through the nmcli tool. This bug is fixed on Fedora 25 and later (Samba 4. Description An update for the mysql:8. RPM Package Manager. Since we mostly want PHP 5. It brings new. GA with CentOS Linux release 7. This is an opportunity to look at PHP installation and how modules work. It's supposed to be thread-safe, but can't guarantee to be, and certainly not under additional PHP extensions. In this article, you will learn how to prepare a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) virtual machine for use in Azure. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is integral to the worldwide economy. rpm: 2018-11-12 14:21 : 1. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux application certification is the model for setting, measuring, and enforcing standards of best practices in modern software applications resulting in the technical assurances today's enterprise. Ansible allows you to manage a huge range of hosts and devices.